In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with the Earth. All objects in the observer’s sky can be thought of as projected upon the inside surface of the Celestial Sphere, as if it were the underside of a dome or a hemispherical screen.

The man or woman who reads the book of Revelation understands them only according to the sense of the letter; namely, that the visible heaven and earth will perish, and a new heaven will exist, and that the holy city Jerusalem, answering to the measures above described, will descend upon the New Earth; but the angels understand these things altogether differently; namely, what man understands naturally, they understand spiritually; and as the angels understand, so they signify; and this is the internal or spiritual sense of the Word. In the internal or spiritual sense, “a new heaven and a new earth” means a New Church, both in the heavens and on the earth, which will be more particularly spoken hereafter. “The city Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven” signifies its heavenly doctrine; “the length,” “the breadth,” and “the height,” which are Equal, signify all the goods and truths of that doctrine in the aggregate. By “the wall,” which is “a hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel,” signifies all those protecting truths in the aggregate, and their quality. “The twelve gates” of pearl mean introductory truths; “the twelve angels at the gates” signify the same. “The foundations of the wall” which are “of every precious stone,” mean the knowledge on which that doctrine is founded.

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